Behavioral Finance

Know Your Client Communication Behavioral Finance

3 Ways Personality Testing Crushes Risk Tolerance Questionnaires

Considering the tidal wave of fear-driven headlines these days, it’s tough focusing on the biggest issue we should be worrying about. Climate change causing the oceans to rise? Over-exuberant stock market heading for a crash? The New England Patriots winning another Super Bowl?

The problem is that human brains just aren’t wired to make accurate risk predictions. Financial advisors know this, which is why they rely on tools to help them evaluate their clients’ tolerance for investment risk. Combine that with the DOL fiduciary standard, and you can begin to explain the sheer number of risk-assessment models available to advisors.

However, the new legislature has not yet helped us define terms such as “know your client” or how to best accomplish it. In theory, advisors are required to understand the goals and financial circumstances of the client, so that they can create solutions with an appropriate level of risk. That may sound straightforward, but human behavior and the response to risk is complex. What exactly should you measure to get the correct answer?

Risk tolerance questionnaires were meant to help with that quandary. Its primary purpose is two-fold: to take the risk temperature so that the advisor can create a portfolio with the volatility that matches the clients’ comfort level and to give the advisor armor in the event of a lawsuit. After all, concrete and measurable risk numbers should be the best evidence that you have made every effort to offer prudent advice. Right?

Is Personality Testing the Answer?

risk toleranceIf directly measuring anticipated response to financial risk does not work, what can advisors do to get a snapshot of the client while still standardizing and proofing the process enough to hold up in court? One company thinks that psychological profiling is the way. DNA Behavior International, an Atlanta-based firm founded by Hugh Massie, has developed a very different take on the traditional risk tolerance questionnaire.

Their product, called Financial DNA, measures the core personality styles of clients and prospects by combining psychometrics and applied mathematics. With the underlying research powered by Georgia Tech University, the company argues the results of its patented assessment stand longer and are more difficult to ‘game.’ (See How Risk Tolerance Software Is Disrupting Wealth Management)

How do they do it? The Financial DNA assessment is a series of 46 questions – an unusually high number when compared with other products. But you won’t find any of the same-old financial risk questions on the list. Leon Morales, the CRO of the company, explained that the traditional questionnaire format allows users to fake results by choosing what they believe to be the right answers, whether consciously or unconsciously.

Financial DNA uses a set of forced-choice questions that focus on communication style, behavioral biases, and goal setting. The resulting risk profile is based on the snapshot of the clients’ core biases and decision-making preferences and is more accurate, Morales claimed.

The goal of the product is to help advisors become wealth “mentors,” according to Massie. Their psychometric-based system leverages comprehensive behavioral insights to more accurately measure each client’s risk appetite. Their client’s report increases in their rate of asset gathering when using their product versus standard risk tolerance questionnaires, Massie reported.

If that sounds really different from the typical risk tolerance questionnaire approach, you are right. Things get even more interesting when it comes to the execution of the idea.

Risk Measurement Methodology: It’s Harder than It Looks

risk toleranceExisting risk tolerance questionnaires are not without their caveats. Most solutions on the market generate their assessments through a series of financial simulation questions and what-if scenarios. What percentage in a portfolio value decline would a client consider acceptable? Would he prefer a certain gain of 8% or a 50/50 chance of either losing 30% or gaining 100%?

There are 3 potential problems with this approach.

The first one is the overly technical nature of the questions. For a client that’s not financially savvy, the choice between a sure gain of 8% and a chance to lose or gain a larger percentage of the portfolio value can be confusing. Some tools work around this by quoting specific dollar amounts instead of percentages. That approach makes the question more tangible but no less theoretical.

One of those tools is from Auburn, CA-based Riskalyze. Their chief investment officer, Michael McDaniel, believes that their risk number assessment that advisors use to understand how much risk a client can handle or tolerate effectively captures all the impacts of an investor’s psychometrics and personality.
And because [they] aren’t simply relying on human interpretation of different psychometric results, but instead have built a quantitative, objective approach to gathering mathematical data points, [their] advisors tell [them] that the results they get and the applicability of those results are vastly superior to the other approaches to psychometrics that they have used, McDaniel noted. (See Smart and Agile: Riskalyze and Quovo Help Advisors Stay Ahead of Robos)

The second problem is response bias.Wikipedia defines this as a wide range of cognitive biases that influence the responses of participants away from an accurate or truthful response. They are most prevalent in studies that require participants to self-report their responses.

In other words, a self-reported response to a future event is often quite different from the actual response in a real life situation. Sure, a client might tell you he would accept a possible 33% decline in his portfolio value when he is sitting in your office. But that response is probably not the same one you would get if the market were actually crashing to Earth.

A 2012 study of risk tolerance questionnaires showed that many products failed to accurately predict client behavior when they are under pressure. Not surprisingly, loss aversion and self-assessment questions fared better than questions based on economic theory.

Other applications take a similar approach. FinaMetrica also uses a psychometric-based questionnaire, but has 25 questions, which could more suitable for use by financial planners providing a comprehensive multi-goal planning service, co-founder Paul Resnik stated. Late last year, FinaMetrica announced an abbreviated 12-question version that was targeted at enterprise clients such banks and insurance companies that need to generate risk tolerance quicker and scale the process across a larger client base.

The third problem is the complex nature of what we are attempting to measure. Risk tolerance is the client’s willingness to take on risk. Capacity for risk refers to the client’s financial ability to absorb the consequences of taking a risk. For example, a client could have a high stated willingness to choose a volatile portfolio in exchange for higher potential gains. If that same client is so close to retirement that his financial ability to weather a dramatic drop in portfolio value is low, low capacity for risk might render high-risk tolerance irrelevant.

Then there is risk perception: how risky the client thinks the markets (or specific investment choices) are. If perceptions are not grounded in reality, clients can make decisions that are at odds with their risk tolerance and capacity for risk. Most tools lump those three sub-categories of risk into a single number. That approach can be misleading. The relative importance of each component is different for every client, and the one-number answer does not accurately reflect those dynamics.

Test-Driving Financial DNA

Clients and prospects can take the Financial DNA assessment from a personalized link shared by an advisor in an email. Advisors also have the option of embedding the link on their website. The assessment can be done on any device and takes 10-12 minutes to complete. Assessment results identify an individual’s preferred communication style and offer insights into automatic decision-making processes. The tool also places the individual into one of seven risk groups (1 being most risk-averse and 7 being most comfortable with risk).

Once a new assessment is completed, the advisor receives an alert via a sleek dashboard. Results can be used to guide the next conversation with the prospect or client.

Our favorite part of the dashboard is its ability to combine assessment results with real-time market data. Dubbed Market Mood, this feature places every client on a scale from exuberant to apprehensive depending on his or her personal biases in the context of current market performance.

For example, when the market is up strongly, there may be some clients that become anxious about an impending decline. Financial DNA provides recommendations on how best to placate each client based on their psychometric results.

Sleek graphics give the advisor a pulse of the overall client base while the drill-down reports offer specific action suggestions based on every client’s preferred communication style. For example, based on Jane’s portfolio risk group, current market performance, and preferred communication style, the system may recommend the advisor sends a market analysis summary, an informal text message or an invitation to an in-person meeting. Advisors report that Market Mood offers a structured approach to engaging clients at the right time. We also love this functionality integrated with SalesForce and other available CRM platforms. And a deep API build-out?launched last year.

The platform has a few other interesting applications. The system-generated risk group assessment for the client is automatically compared with his or her portfolio risk as well as the advisor’s personal risk group. A scenario in which client Mary has a risk group score of 2, her advisor has a score of 7, and Mary’s portfolio falls into group 6 would be flagged as a potential compliance risk. Within larger firms, assessment results could be used to pair incoming prospects with advisors. Just swipe right for a perfect match!

Another application, shared by family offices that use the product, is in combining assessment results for multiple family members to better predict and manage interpersonal dynamics in decision-making.

Pricing and Implementation

Financial DNA offers three packages based on an annual subscription model:

  • Introductory Package $135/month/advisor.
  • Behavioral Finance Package $290/month/advisor. Includes their Client Market Mood Dashboard plus other options. (Their most popular option)
  • Certified Wealth Mentoring Package $370/month/advisor. Includes all lower features plus additional coaching, training, leadership and team development courses.

Some of the advanced training includes helping advisors and portfolio managers to develop their own emotional intelligence and better understand what biases they bring to the table. This helps firms improve their interaction with with different clients, improves client overall satisfaction and reduces complaints.

Their clients include a wide range of firm sizes from small registered investment advisors to broker-dealers, banks and insurance companies, Massie explained.

Personality Assessment as a Marketing Engine?

Financial DNA offers to improve client communications and create a value-added differentiator that will help with client conversion and retention. Current users offer anecdotal evidence of prospects that became clients because the advisor applied insights from the assessment to structure the conversation in a way that made the client feel deeply understood. The marketing application itself isn’t new: Riskalyze has long positioned its offering as a tool to help advisors improve prospect-to-client conversion. As more advisors begin to use Financial DNA and more data becomes available, we would be curious to see their extended results.

Every risk assessment tool has its limitations. At the end of the day, a risk score or personality profile is only the start of a bigger conversation. The best approach combines an assessment of the client’s willingness to take risks with his or her financial goals and capacity for taking risks. Financial DNA promises to help advisors tailor communication styles to match client preferences and guide triage efforts when the market hits a bump. In giving advisors a tool that goes beyond risk assessment to improve their ability to reach and coach clients, this platform’s innovating approach may be onto something.

Money Management Apps

Make Money Management More Manageable: 5 Free Apps

Not all FinTech is B2B or strictly geared towards financial advisors. In fact, there are some really cool apps out there to make money management more manageable. Here are 5 free apps to help you achieve your financial goals.





At DNA Behavior, we use Venmo nearly every day to settle up on lunch expenses. Venmo allows users to transfer money between one another using their mobile app. When a user pays someone else, the funds are drafted from their bank or credit card, and when funds are received, they are deposited into their Venmo account to form a balance. If you use a bank account, this service is 100% free.

Pro tip: Have a friend that habitually doesn’t pay you back? Venmo is great because the app notifies users when they have unpaid bills, and even allows users to trigger these same reminders.




Taking turns on expenses or meals on a long trip, in reality, never ends up even. Last month, I traveled to the Pacific Northwest for my 30th birthday. There were four of us on the trip, and each person contributed to various things along the way. I routinely got Starbucks for everyone in the morning, and we then took turns for dinner, parking, and tours, etc.. Splitwise tracks these transactions and allows you to easily split expenses with friends and make sure you get paid back, problem solved. The app figures out the over/under of each person and determines a balance of who owes who what at the very end.

Pro tip: Use the Venmo integration with Splitwise to settle-up for an entirely cashless transaction!




Free stock trading – yes, free. Say goodbye to $10 trading fees with this no frills, FINRA approved, brokerage mobile phone app. Traditionally I have been a TD Ameritrade user, but lately, I have started to use this app for two reasons:

The app credits you up to $1,000 of your pending bank deposits right away, rather than having to wait while your funds are on hold 3-days. The same goes for making funds available for reinvestment immediately after you make a sale.
The app notifies you in advance of scheduled events – like earnings, dividends, or splits, so you can get up-to-date information at the right time.




What is your net worth? If you don’t know, you can find out in about 15 minutes using this app. Mint allows you to tally all of your bank, brokerage, and credit card accounts with your cars, houses, loans and expenses to provide you real-time net worth and budget details on your phone.

Amateur tip: If you’re bad about paying your bills on time, Mint reminds you when they are due, with push notifications.

Pro tip: Use the goals feature to track your funds earmarked for buying a house, saving for college or retirement, etc.




Recently, I bought a pair of high-end hiking boots, but then they went on sale the following week. No buyer’s remorse here! Paribus tracked my purchase and automatically requested a refund. The price difference is on its way, and I didn’t have to lift a finger – not even to open the app!

Each of these mobile money management apps is making the seemingly small transactions ever easier, either tracking or saving our hard-earned money every step of the way. About the time you find yourself toiling away at some ordinary, mundane situation, someone else has figured out an app for that.

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Solving The Dangerous Voids in Risk Profiling

No doubt, intense discussions surrounding risk tolerance and behavioral finance are on the rise. Michael Kitces, who writes the Nerds Eye View Blog, has written a very good summary on the state of play regarding risk tolerance questionnaires in his article: The Sorry State of Risk Profiling Questionnaires for Advisors.

Michael articulates various risk factors in distinguishing between tolerance, capacity and perception. Likewise, for advisors using Financial DNA, addressing the differences between tolerance, capacity and perception is very clear. And these users are provided with the structured framework in which to do it.

Then there is how the risk profile is used. In goals-based planning, where the client has a portfolio designed to achieve buckets of goals, there may be multiple risk profiles. Given that there are different goals, the risk tolerance of the client must be known and the framework outlined and applied.

Many advisors believe that risk tolerance can be determined by observation or casual interaction. However, these methods are neither objective nor validated. Relying on the advisor’s perception of the client under preset circumstances (in a comfortable office or out for a meal) opens the door to a myriad of pitfalls. The advisor is influenced by their own risk profile and biases, which removes objectivity. The client, while self-reporting, may not be faced with the pressures of considering a volatile market or other life-changing event, which would alter decision making or goal-setting, again removing objectivity from the equation. Also, not using a validated psychometric risk profiling process means that the advisor does not have a consistent process for handling the risk conversation with the client. This further leads to discolored results, and not just for a given client, but across the entire firm.

While current regulations do not specify that a validated psychometric process must be used, it is the direction in which we’re headed. If the firm wants to have a robust process of mitigating client complaints and maintaining compliance, these tools provide the solution. Plus, as Kitces points out, it is not just the tool itself, but also the planner’s behavior and skill in deploying the tool that is important.

Conversely, some advisors state that they do not wish to bother a client with more paperwork, so they do not have them complete a risk questionnaire. But experience shows that the addition helps keep the focus client centered during the planning process, plus the client feels more engaged because they’ve participated at a higher level. So it becomes a service quality enhancement, which deepens the advisor / client relationship and ultimately leads to greater revenue.

Next, the discussion turns to the design of the actual risk tolerance questionnaire – “right data in, right data out”. Kitces is right (as is Plan Plus), most tools are inherently flawed for many reasons, and many purport to be something they are not. The questionnaire structure is important to the outcome, and must follow an accepted psychometric model.

Our view is that all of the risk profiles (even the validated ones) use situational based questions – that is, the client could respond to the questions differently depending on any one (or combination of) market or personal events, attitudes, feelings, perceptions, education etc. While this template provides a basic baseline profile, it does not provide the most accurate or effective insights as to the emotional state of a client. Daniel Kahneman, psychologist known for his extensive work in behavioral finance and decision making, details our “Level 1″ automatic decision-making style as when we are under pressure or how our baseline, “hard-wired” instincts will drive decision-making. So unless a clients (or your own) Level 1 style is known, it is impossible to build a long-term portfolio, as it will be emotionally incompatible. So the questionnaire has to be designed to uncover this Level 1 behavior – free from personal or situational bias. The Financial DNA design does just this and the validated results are accurate and constant over time.

Whats missed in all of this is risk tolerance being only 1 dimension of a clients financial personality. There are several more factors to consider within the broader field of behavioral finance in order to fully understand the decision-making biases of both the client and advisor. Not communicating these biases only creates more risk to the client / advisor relationship, decision-making, goal-setting and overall compliance. So, the risk discussion is not complete without knowing the clients full set of behavioral biases and knowing how to communicate on the client’s terms. And this is why it is so important that the questionnaire design must be objective, robust and validated.

One thing for sure is, the regulatory process will not go backwards. And in today’s competitive and complex world, costly client complaints will not go away. But, on the positive side, those advisors who are investing in building client centered and compliant processes have the upper hand. So, invest in a stronger “Know Your Client” process, as what is good for the client will be much better for the advisor and firm too.


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Compliance Issues the DOJ Isn’t Telling You About

We make decisions in different ways – but most are driven by our natural biases. These biases can affect an Advisor’s ability to recommend the appropriate options for clients, setting them up for a potential compliance issue. Natural Behavioral Biases also can affect the client’s ability to understand and make rational decisions.

Psychologists Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky introduced the concept of psychological bias in the early 70s and published their findings in the 1982 book, Judgement under Uncertainty.They explained that psychological bias is the tendency to make decisions or take action in an illogical way. For example, you might subconsciously make selective use of data and fail to apply common sense to a measured judgment. This is how people make mistakes or accidents happen, right?

Furthermore, Since its inception nearly three decades ago, behavioral economics has upset the pristine premise of classical economic theory – the view that individuals will always behave rationally to achieve the best possible outcome. Today it’s clear that the vagaries of individual and group psychology can cause irrational decision making by both individuals and organizations, resulting in less than ideal outcomes. Even the best-designed strategic-planning processes don’t always lead to optimal decisions.

If decisions on a certain course of action rests with individuals, and bias plays a significant role in human decision-making, then how can any investor (or their advisor) make rational investment decisions?

Improving financial decision-making requires limiting both investor’s and advisor’s own biases. In the advisor/investor relationship this is a difficult path to navigate because bias is hard-wired in our nature. It goes beyond simplistic Compliance rules & regulations, or a Risk Tolerance matrix. We’re talking about applying validated psychological assessment data to the landscape of financial decision-making. These are the same tools and insights that businesses and military groups employ in order to ID best fit for a role on a tem or determine predictable outcomes based on a given set of circumstances and the individuals involved.

Many of the behavioral economists over the years have presented sound academic papers on behavioral bias, but few have presented answers to this dilemma. However, one such answer could be for both advisor and investor to complete a robust and validated Natural Behavior Discovery process, a personality assessment. The 5 benefits outlined below are:

  1. Highlight areas of bias in both parties

Part of knowing one’s behavior beyond what’s presented on the surface (Learned Behavior) is understanding our internal quirks. These are the potential pitfalls, or holes, in our irrational decision-making process. By acknowledging them and mitigating their effects, natural bias can be effectively managed.

  1. Identify risk tolerance

Part of the basis of any successful financial planning is knowing the limits of a client’s exposure to market volatility vs. their goals for accumulating and managing wealth. As it’s part of a person’s personality, a discovery process platform will uncover their natural risk propensity and risk tolerance, so a financial advisor can plan accordingly.

  1. Minimize compliance issues

There are two (2) ways to avoid compliance issues, beyond following the letter of the rules and regulations placed upon advisors. First, ensure a clients goals are accurately identified. With a definitive path laid out in order to attain them, simple hints and reminders will help guide the client to stay true to their own plan in the face of market volatility or life changes. And second, matching personality types between client and advisor. Having similar communication styles and/or ways of thinking about finances, risk and decision-making will minimize the risk of mis-communication and misunderstanding. A proper assessment of all parties helps to ensure the closest match.

  1. Improve communication

Much like matching personalities, everyone has a certain communication style in how they best engage others. Some may need more upfront information, and then time to reflect and absorb or reach for themselves, while others just need a quick run-down of the bullet-points. Adapting to an individuals style helps keep every engagement successful and personal. Most compliance issues arise from poor communication.Assessing the styles of all involved helps close the gap.

  1. Deepen client relationships overall

The combination of the points detailed above provides a holistic method to successfully engage each client on a personal level, deepening that relationship while mitigating gaps in personality and communication. As the financial services sector becomes more familiar with behavioral economics and the role it plays in terms of strategic thinking in firms and with regulators, it is now expected that the financial advisory industry as a whole will take biases and irrational behavior into account in the product design and marketing process, as well as in their overall strategic planning. The opportunity is to now apply these psychological tools and insights to financial relationships and decisions, to achieve a specific goal with the investor’s best interest in mind.

Avoid Irrelevance- Reinvent Your Financial Practice

5 Tips To Managing Your Advisor’s Behavioral Bias

So what exactly is Behavior Bias?
And can it be avoided?

Yes, Behavioral Bias can be mitigated, it’s just a matter of developing Financial EQ through behavioral awareness.

Good questions for Investors to ask and answer:

  • Why do some Advisors repeatedly lose wealth and others accumulate it?
  • Why, after developing investment goals, do some advisors then revert to knee-jerk reactions that may hurt returns?
  • Is there more to advisors than just analyzing numbers and making decisions to buy and sell various assets and securities?
  • How aware of their own behavioral biases are advisors? How aware are you, as an investor, of yours?

Behavior Bias is when we let emotions or our biases get in the way of smart financial decisions. In other words, it’s the gap between what we know we ought to do and what we actually do especially under pressure or in the face of uncertain markets.
For advisors to be successful, they need to be able to manage their “emotional reflex system” when volatile events happen. They can’t control the markets, but they can manage their reaction to them. And the same goes for how they engage you, their client.

Also, behavioral bias doesn’t apply only to advisors. As an investor, you’re equally likely to be caught unaware. Your thinking and actions are influenced by the same set of factors and biases that affect advisors in their financial decision-making process.

Qualities such as investing time into building relationships to build trust will help keep advisors from making personal investment mistakes. However, using a highly validated discovery process with your advisor will reveal decision-making behavior, immediately. Further, it helps uncover your own goals and priorities.

5 Tips To Managing Your Advisors Behavioral Bias


According to Carl Richards in his book The Behavior Gap: Simple Ways to Stop Doing Dumb Things with Money’:

“It’s not that we’re dumb. We’re wired to avoid pain and pursue pleasure and security. It feels right to sell when everyone around us is scared and buy when everyone feels great. It may feel right, but it’s not rational.”

Simply put, the 5 tips to managing (you and) your advisor’s behavioral bias:

1. Acknowledge behavioral biases are inherent to everyone.

- identify emotional triggers, the inherent go to’ decision-making process, under pressure.

2. Never assume’ that you are not biased.

- as an investor, (driven by reputation, compensation, building a business, or managing expectations) you will make different decisions under pressure than when in a learned, calm, logical train of thought.

3. Keep your goals and financial capacity in focus-the big picture.

- this path to success will keep knee-jerk reactions from disrupting progress.

4. Everyone has an inherent hard-wired behavioral style, which is the core of who they are, and emotional reactions can be predicted, with the right tools.

5. Communication is the key.

- you must understand how to uncover a someone’s unique communication and learning style.
- Matching styles will close gaps in communicating.

Behavioral psychologists have long understood that people are not entirely rational. We’re influenced by a range of factors, from emotion to inherent behavioral biases, which make a less rational choice seem more appealing. If investors are to understand the behavior gap that will exist both for them and their advisors they need to learn about behavioral biases and other irrational behavior. Gaining this insight will deliver more effective and informed decision-making, which will stand up under market pressure.

5 Tips for Behaviorally Driven Goals-Based Planning

5 Tips for Behaviorally Driven Goals-Based Planning

Times continue to change for financial advisors. Investor fears, lack of confidence and market uncertainty are provoking clients to demand better, more personalized advice from their advisors.

Financial advisors who have moved to a behaviorally driven goals-based planning process will be the winners.

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Since the global financial crisis and recession, clients are driving the industry.

The Client:

1. Unique; each has different wants and needs.
2. Each having cognitive biases, emotions, fears, anxieties, greed and excitement.
3. Thinks they are better informed in taking control of their finances.

And advisors are struggling to navigate client’s emotions, inconsistent thoughts, and biases while maintaining control of the advisory process.

The Financial Advisor:

1. Trying to understand client’s behavior and emotional decision making.
2. Engaging to uncover and understand a client’s life goals.
3. Applying an understanding of client behavior to their investment style.

So how can firms develop a scalable framework and service model for financial advisors to address the unique wants and needs of individual investors?

Goals based Planning, based on the following 5 step process.

1. Use a trusted financial behavioral process to uncover:

a. Client’s inherent approach to finances and wealth creation
b. Biases, that get in the way of solid decision-making
c. Quality Life Goals, like retirement and family wealth transfer

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2. Outcomes from the behavioral process to build a goal based plan that is clear and precise:

a. Enable both client and advisor to have a clearer understanding of the goals
b. Identify, for the advisor, the client’s likelihood of achieving the goals and then enable measurable steps to be added.
c. Goals set relative to feasibility and other life and family priorities.

3. Create measurable checks and balances to:

a. Articulate a vision for wealth creation
b. Understand how bias and emotion might impact their decision-making
c. Be accountable even when markets are unpredictable

4. To add further value to the advisory process, Financial advisors should also complete the behavioral process.

a. The advisors own naturally ingrained biases will be revealed and can be managed.
b. Produce long-term relationships with clients when matching character traits and communication styles.
c. Advice given based on life plans and dreams, rather than by pure performance of investments.

5. Deliver a greater level of communication and a deeper trust will be built.

a. Meetings are more effective with the focus on achieving goals as a way to increasing wealth and achieving quality of life.
b. Turbulent markets are easily navigated with awareness of how the client will respond and then, how to communicate accordingly.
c. Linking financial personality with communication style will deliver a significant step forward in the way of financial planning.

Developing goal-based plans is not a new concept. However, linking it with the key foundational process of uncovering inherent behaviors is. The two approaches together will deliver not only a more effective outcome for the client but will be an industry differentiator for the advisor.